According to ECI public relations, 48 world cities and villages have been registered by World Crafts Council (WCC) as world cities or villages of handicrafts.

Out of this number, 40 cities belong to Asia-Pacific region while 6 cities are in Latin America and 2 cities in Europe. Having registered 14 cities and villages in the World Crafts Council, Iran ranks first in the world in this field. These registered cities and villages include:
1. Shiraz, Fars Province: World Craft City for Handicrafts
2. Zanjan, Zanjan Province: World Craft City for filigree
3. Malayer, Hamedan Province: World City for Woodcarving & Carved-Wood Furniture
4. Tabriz, East Azarbaijan Province: World Craft City for Carpet Weaving
5. Isfahan, Isfahan Province: World Craft City
6. Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi Province: World Craft City for Gemstones
7. Lalejin, Hamedan Province: World Craft City for Pottery
8. Marivan, Kordestan Province: World Craft City for Klash (Footwear) Stitching
9. Sirjan, Kerman Province: World Craft City for Kilim
10. Abadeh, Fars Province: World Craft City for Woodcarving (Munabbat)
11. Meybod, Yazd Province: World Craft City for Handwoven Floor Covering (Zilou)
12. Khorashad Village, South Khorasan Province: World Craft Village for Towel Weaving (Holebafi)
13. Qasemabad Village, Gilan Province: World Craft City for Chadorshab Weaving
14. Kalpourgan, Sistan & Baloochestan Province: World Craft Village for Handmade PotteryRelated


To further study the history of glassmaking in Iran, it is first necessary to address the historical origins of glass in the world and go back to ancient times when man sought to know the ways of using glass (meaning natural glass) and producing its types. In a separate article, manual glassmaking and its steps are explained, and in this article, its history is fully discussed.

Examining the social developments of antiquity, it is clear that these developments found the necessary social preconditions for the development of industry and trade. One of the important issues related to glass in this period was the widespread expansion of natural glass stone trade among the tribes and peoples of ancient civilizations. On the eastern shores of the Mediterranean were Egypt, Syria, and Mesopotamia, which were mainly used for making beads and decorative beads, as well as sharp pieces for defense and hunting. According to historical evidence, the origins of glassmaking should be traced back to Mesopotamia and possibly to areas where sand and alkali coexisted.

The inhabitants of Mesopotamia and the surrounding civilizations made their first experiments in melting glass. Experiments whose products did not bear much resemblance to today’s glass and whose appearance was very opaque and full of unmelted grains. But the quality of smelting quickly improved, and the production of synthetic glass and the making of beads and beads from it became common in the early civilizations of antiquity.

In fact, the geographical expansion of glass making has been one of the basic trends of this art industry in ancient times. In particular, the civilizations of Egypt, Syria and Mesopotamia were at the center of the competition.

Alexandria in Egypt, Damascus in Syria, and Nineveh in Mesopotamia became the focal points of ancient glassmaking at the beginning of this historical process.

With the emergence of two emerging civilizations of Greece and Iran, glassmaking was transferred from Egypt to Greece and from Nineveh to Iran.

With the birth of the Persian Empire in the east and the fall of the city of Nineveh, which was the largest center of Mesopotamian glassmaking, the glassmaking industry was transferred to Iran through the glassmakers of Nineveh and quickly expanded into the Aryan part of the empire. Of course, the Aryan tribes of Khuzestan and Ilam, which were the neighbors of Mesopotamia, had been familiar with glass for a long time, that is, the second millennium BC, and especially during the Ilam Empire, whose center was Susa.

In fact, Iranian glassmaking has an independent identity and has had a profound historical impact on other works of Iranian industrial art. The rise of Iranian glass in antiquity and the expansion of Iranian glassmaking as a new movement is inspired by the same spirit that led to the formation of Marlik vessels. Specifically, the bergamot design on the floor of most Marlik metal utensils, which is also used on Iranian glass, reflects the religious beliefs of the Aryan tribes.

Especially if we consider the fact that Iran was a bridge in the ancient world due to its special geographical and commercial position, and therefore the entry of Mesopotamian, Syrian and even Egyptian glass into Iran and the interaction of the two cultures will be obvious. , Because this interference, the separation of Iranian-made glass and the interaction of the two cultures will be obvious. Because this interference makes it very difficult to separate the glass made in Iran and determine the pure and special Iranian innovations, and if we know that more than 95% of the Iranian glass found is in foreign museums, the problem will be doubled.

Pottery art is one of the oldest existent arts in the world, which is done by shaping the original ball clay with the artists hand and by using the potter’s wheel or without the potter’s wheel. The genus of this ball clay is of clay, sediments and, chopped plants. The red color of the ball clay is because of iron in its constituent particles.

After the beginning of the pottery era and human’s mastery over this art, the humans’ necessities were provided by pottery, which has been and is welcomed in the world.

The history of this art from the first earthen vessels and jars discovered on the plateau of Iran dates back to more than 10,000 years.

The earthen vessels and jars are hardened by the high heat of the kilns, and by immersing the product in the glaze, they put it back in the kiln and, by oxidizing the enamel layer, the product becomes waterproof and its color stabilizes.

 Related arts:

Minakari, Enameling, Khatam Kari, Inlaid Working, HasirBafi, Mat weaving, FiroozehKoobi Turquoise inlaying, MojassamehSazi, Sculpture, Sculpturing, KashiSazi, Tilemaking, Kashi Moshabbak Lattice tile, Naghashi Roye Sofal, Painting on earthenware, Honare Seramik Ceramic art.

The art and culture of Iran has been famous and special throughout history and its magnificent and valuable works are at the level of world masterpieces and today it is the ornament of the great museums of the world or in the possession of collectors. A very interesting example of valuable Iranian art is Rhyton making, which has been of special importance both in prehistoric times and in historical periods. This art is not imported but the initiative of Iranians, and the surviving examples show the creative spirit and innate genius of Iranians, who have ultimately created elegance, precision, skill and mastery.

What is Rhyton?

In Dehkhoda dictionary, the word Takuk is mentioned equivalent to Rhyton and it is stated that: Takuk was something golden or iron in the form of cow or fish or chicken and they drank wine with it.

In the book (Parthian Achaemenid Medo-Sassanid) it is stated:  “This is the kind of dish that the HITITs refer to as Bibrau in their historical documents.”

Saghar or Jami, which is used in Persian, is referred to in the term of archeology as Rhyton, which the Iranians made in ancient times with a special form and skill. Containers that have the ends in the shape of animal heads such as tiger, deer, deer, horse, bull, wild goat, etc. with different sizes.

Perhaps these cups were made with special shapes to the buildings and palaces where the Medes, Parthians and Persians lived. It should be consistent that the complement of the high-flying procedure made them look double, and another reason for making these cups is stated in the book (Art of Metalworking in Iran) as “The animals’ power and strengths will be transferred to them.”

It seems that this reason is more in line with the beliefs and beliefs of the Aryans, because in the construction of palaces, the use of statues of huge and extraordinary animals (griffons) GRIFFON expresses the greatness of the Aryans and also has the aspect of protecting the palace and temples.

How to make Raytheon

1) Making metal Raytheon with a hammer:

In this method, ingots or flat sheets and cold metal are made into a desirable shape by hammering or using convex molds, reminiscent of molds and other metalworking tools.

2) Making metal or clay Raytheon by casting or molding:

In this method, the model and mold of the dish were first waxed and all or part of the necessary decorations were carved or engraved on it, and then the mold was placed in a very soft clay container and poured on it. The heat of molten metal melted the wax and the dish melted. After cooling, it was paid for. To make clay Raytheons, molds were first made for the desired shapes of metal or wood, then clay was placed in molds, and after drying in the kilns, they were glazed in various colors.

Raytheon shapes

The construction of Raytheon was usually inspired by nature, considering the animals that lived around them and were considered a manifestation of beauty and power. The desired shape was chosen for Raytheon. Sometimes the creative mind led to the formation of imaginary and unreal animals and brought it to the scene with the utmost care and capacity, and usually animals were selected that were superior to their peers in nature and were the manifestation of power and dominance to better power and shock. They exposed the ruling class or had a special characteristic, such as the camel, whose main characteristic is tolerance against dehydration.

Most archaeologists have discovered various forms of Raytheons in different geographical areas.

In Hamedan, most of the lion’s head and the head of the ram in Zivieh, Kurdistan and the soaring mountains of the Zagros, the head of the ram and the savage. In Kelardasht, Mazandaran, the tiger in the desert and hot and dry areas of the camel formed the Raytheon Hara design.

In the book, the Sassanid Parthian Achaemenid material, it is mentioned that different forms of Raytheons are kept in the museums of the world.

«Golden Raytheons of the Metropolitan Museum in the shape of a lion, silver Raytheons  of the Kevorkian Yen collection kevorkian in the form of silver governorates of the Schimmel collection of the Schimmel collection of rams Silver Raytheons  of the Leningrad Museum in the form of rams Silver Raytheons  of the Louvre Lover Museum “And the horses of the British Bee Tish Museum in the form of griffons. The silver Raytheons  of the Ermitaga Museum in the form of winged goats. The golden Raytheons  of the personal collection in New York in the form of deer and other Achaemenid gold and silver Raytheons  that adorn the museums of Iran.”

The golden Raytheon of Ekbatan winged lion is a masterpiece of Achaemenid metalworking art. This unique Raytheon, made of pure gold by hammering, has a special feature and beauty among all the discovered Raytheons.


“It has been used continuously in religious ceremonies and other court ceremonies and has no other use than the above.”

With the emergence of this type of dish in human life, it has been continuously used by the ruling class in special ceremonies, feasts, feasts and celebrations, and the prosperity of the aristocratic assembly has been.

The use of this type of utensils was used in all social classes, but their type was different. The lower classes of society used pottery Raytheons, and the upper classes used gold and silver Raytheons, and in religious ceremonies, probably more in the form of roses. The grains were used. Given that Raytheon’s mouth was wide open. By pouring perfume in it and installing it in the empty space of rooms and halls, temples, fire temples, existing space

They made it fragrant and spiritual. With the advent of Islam and due to the special beliefs of the Islamic religion, including the source of drinking wine, opposition to the portrayal of humans and animals in art, the art of Raytheon was also forgotten.

Iranian handicrafts as one of the main origins of handicrafts in the world, along with China and India, has a brilliant and long history. Undoubtedly, the talent and creativity of Iranians and their interest in art and the creation of artworks, has been one of the factors in the consistency and durability of Iranian handicrafts throughout the history.

Experts believe that Iranians succeeded in creating works of art by recognizing the beauties, or at least by understanding it. they are friendly and encouraging artists in presenting works of art; Because art-loving Iranians have long recognized the sensitive point that the work of an artist or craftsman is not just a physical work, but She/he, like a writer and poet, reflects her/his feelings and thoughts in his works and gives them identity.

However, Iranian culture, like other cultures in the ancient Near East, has a strong unique identity, a very complex and diverse civilization that to study and recognize it, referring to history, especially archaeological discoveries made in different parts of the country, is inevitable because the study of handicrafts and limited professions in regions of Iran should be started from very distant times and even before history and its evolutionary process should be examined in the order of time, thus they are the primary origin of today’s industries that are still in use in different parts of Iran.

Above all, it should be noted that knowing the general history of the country and a view of the archaeological excavations can be the basis of our information about handicrafts, and obviously the history of industry is not something different from the history of civilization and must necessarily study industries, arts and initiation of Iranian professions from the beginning of civilization and people’s ways of life. According to most scholars, the origins of agricultural techniques, metalworking, pottery and the basics of religious and philosophical ideas, calligraphy, numerology, astronomy and mathematics, is the Middle East and especially the plateau of Iran.

The oldest stage of human life in Iran, as far as written works and historical recoveries can help us to find it, is a special civilization of the “Middle Stone Age” or Mesolithic, with which we are about 10,000 to 12,000 years away and related documents by Carlton S. Coon (Charlton S. Coon) was found in the residential cave “Hoto” or “Belt” near the current city of Behshahr and in the southeastern corner of the Caspian Sea and is related to the period of human life by the sea and indicates that about 6000 years BC. The cultivation of cereals, especially wheat and barley, was common in Iran, and crops were harvested with a sickle made of flint with a serrated and pointed edge. At the same time, animal husbandry and the use of goat and sheep meat and milk were common, and in addition, sheep wool was used for spinning and weaving. At the same time, people were familiar with the preparation of a kind of uneven and under-baked pottery, as well as the preparation of various stone and bone tools for hunting.

Sickle made of flint with a serrated and pointed edge